- 연구원소식 - Jeju Forum Alumni Newsletter
Jeju Forum Alumni Newsletter
Titles [Jeju Forum Alumni Newsletter] (No.6 | November 2018) Towards a Sustainable Peace: Restorative Justice and Peace Education
Writer JPI  (admin)
2018-11-19 오후 5:27:10



How can we achieve a just and sustainable peace? How can we design and develop our education programs to build more peaceful and just societies? This joint session, co-sponsored by the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies (The University of Notre Dame) and the Jeju Peace Institute, explores the recent developments in peace studies by focusing on the restorative justice approach and peace education. Participants of the panel discuss how the restorative justice approach can contribute to peacebuilding in post-conflict countries and societies, and how we can better respond to ethnic, religious, and inter-state conflicts by broadening the horizon of peace education with more rigorous and innovative peace studies programs.


The following are excerpts from the final report of the Jeju Forum 2018.





David HOOKER Associate Professor, University of Notre Dame





Mahan MIRZA Professor, University of Notre Dame

KIM Ji Eun Assistant Professor, Eastern Mennonite University

YI Seong-Woo Research Fellow, Jeju Peace Institute

BYEON Jong Heon Professor, Jeju National University


● David HOOKER Peace is a complicated subject in which various disciplines such as anthropology, his¬tory and religious studies are interrelated with each other and with the different values associated with them. Thus, scholars interpret peace differently. This session will discuss the diversity of peace education.


● YI Seong-Woo From a scholarly perspective, peace studies must have three pillars to stand on: peace research (scientific research based on statistical evidence), peace education and peace activism. In the U.S., peace studies place much emphasis on scientific data. The use of readable and understandable data is instrumental. For example, if a situation arose where North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un verbally threatened the U.S., it would be important to gather and analyze the data about the series of events that led to that situation. Johan Galtung, the founder of peace and conflict studies, emphasized the importance of the presence of justice. He recognizes peace not as the absence of conflict but as the presence of justice. When I visited the Hiroshima Peace Institute, locals talked about the atrocities of the atomic bombing and they were not interested in discussing the circumstances of the war, such as how the war began and which party started it. They only emphasized that the bomb was dropped in their city, that they were hit by it and that they were victims. Therefore, I believe peace is the existence of justice. The subject of peace in Korea is mostly connected with the issues of North-South Korea relations, including the peaceful reunification of the peninsula. In terms of contemporary policy, peace studies is focused on social justice. The greatest problem with us is that we do not see the big picture.


● KIM Ji Eun We have made tremendous advances in Korea. However, Korea has yet to address the need to heal the wounds from its past. In this regard, I think there is much room for possibility. Societies have been engaged in seeking ways to heal wounds from massacres, wars, apartheids, forced relocations, etc. What is of the utmost importance is to heal the wounds of the victims. To that end, society must recognize the moral status of its victims and help them return to society. It is important to acquire restorative and stable justice in order for that to happen, the state or responsible organization must acknowledge its wrongdoing and officially apologize for it. Secondly, apologies must be judged from the perspective of the victims. Whether an apology was made or not is not what matters. For example, it is historically significant that the Moon Jae-in government apologized directly to the victims of the Jeju 4.3 Incident. During the time of the 4.3 Incident, innocent citizens were indiscriminately killed due to the government’s crackdown on communists. What is even more important is that it was political violence. After decades of silence, the government’s involvement in the violence was revealed, and the special act was legislated, which meant that the state officially acknowledged its complicity in the massacre. Two years ago, I spoke with surviving family members of 4.3 victims about how they felt. They said that they felt better. However, it is regrettable that the compensation for their suffering was not enough. Views on this matter differ from scholar to scholar. What is important is the manner in which the government apologizes to the community that has been torn apart. Of course, an apology is not the end of the healing process. For the victims, the process of healing is a long one. The apology should not end with mere words but be accompanied by follow-up measures. There must be commitments to peace.


● Mahan MIRZA Today’s theologians discuss the religious crisis in Muslim communities of Southeast Asia. Madrasa, the Islamic educational institution in India and Pakistan, teaches Arabic and religious faith while sharing views with scholars and philosophers. Students of madrasa return to society to teach the public on religious matters. An idiosyncrasy of madrasa is that it never teaches one singular answer. It encourages students to ask each other questions without easily reaching agreement. Through this process, madrasa promotes cooperation among people of different social classes who have different perspectives on the world. This mode of promoting cooperation could be an effective tool for building peace. The highly advanced technologies of today make connections easy. In fact, madrasa students use electronic devices to participate in peace building. This not only facilitates communication on familiar subjects but also helps to expand the scope of the new subjects of communication. Such use of technologies can potentially contribute to building peace in Asia.


● BYEON Jong Heon There are many inherent difficulties in peace education. The first is that everyone has a different definition of what peace is. Even if we somehow define peace, that definition will be differently understood. And since everyone examines the notion of peace from their own particular place in society, it is difficult to settle this issue of peace. What we should note about various concepts of peace are the elements of harmony or integration inherent in the meaning of peace. On Jeju Island alone, there are many social conflicts over such issues as the Gangjeong naval base and the recent influx of Yemenis refugees to the island. I think solving these problems is a way to achieve peace. Traditionally in China and Korea, peace does not simply mean the end of war but a peaceful state of mind. To coexist and harmonize with all forms of life is to achieve peace. I would like to talk about the internal changes of mind in establishing peace with the society that surrounds us. If we accept peace as such, I think perhaps peace is sustainable. UNESCO defines peace not as something that can be politically or economically prescribed but as something that comes from the human mind. It says that at the heart of the matter is how we change ourselves.

I want to talk about specific methodologies for peace education. Let me suggest two basic premises of peace education. The first is a complex thinking system approach. Humans enter into a variety of relations in the course of their lives, and it is a complex-system thinking approach that allows them to have a comprehensive outlook on their relations. A simple thinking approach permits the viewer to focus just on the here and now and to think of the world in black and white. With a complex system thinking approach, however, one identifies a pattern in the flow of the past, present and future. The second premise is moral imagination. This is the ability to imagine the effect of one’s actions in a given situation. In other words, it is an ability not to be stuck in one’s own personal thoughts or perspectives but to imagine the social consequences of one’s own choices. Ultimately, moral imagination is a means by which humans become aware of the diversity of the human network. In a situation where people experience conflict and violence as a matter of daily life, moral imagination allows us to break the cycle of conflict and imagine the future that has yet to come. To address the issues of violence we face, or to resolve conflicts we face in our daily lives, it is necessary to see the different aspects of the situation from different perspectives.


● David HOOKER Peace is a value that everyone must understand. It is not that peace is only taught in schools. Peace education depends on how we organize society. It depends on the value of all cultures and varies by organization size and period. It focuses on how individuals and groups can contribute to society.